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12 Things That 'Captain America: The Winter Soldier' Gets Right

The ninth film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe series of films, Captain America: The Winter Soldier earned $259.8 million in North America and $454.7 million in other territories, adding up to $714.4 million worldwide. It was the seventh-highest grossing film of 2014, with a net profit calculated to be in the region of $166.2 million. The film set several opening day records and held the number one spot at the box office for three consecutive weekends. That’s what you would call a commercial success.

As far as critical response went, it was judged generally as having gotten the balance right between suspense, action and political awareness. Many found that it combined action with character development seamlessly, managing to blend cliffhangers and comedy, character and conflict.

Captain America: The Winter Soldier is examined in full in the book How Stories Really Work to see what made it so successful on so many levels. Some key points of that analysis are examined here, without using the special terminology employed in that book.

Of course, a well-known Marvel Comics character like Captain America has a fan-following numbering in millions anyway, and so attracts the attention of movie-goers who were hooked into watching anything coming out of the Marvel cinematic universe after the phenomenal success of The Avengers, one of the top-grossing films of all time. So we already have an audience who will camp outside the theatre on opening night to see the film first; and we already have an interested public, not quite as desperate but nevertheless gripped by the ongoing saga that unfolds throughout the Marvel films.

What else does the film do to attract even more people and then satisfy them?

(Spoiler alert: you may not want to read further unless you have seen the film…)

1. It focuses on the right protagonist.

Steve Rogers, the eponymous hero of the story, has not only lost his parents by this film, but his whole time period, 1940s America. He's survived being frozen and has awakened to a whole new world as shown in the comics and in the initial film in the series, Captain America, the First Avenger. For audiences less familiar with this background, we see audience concern triggered in the opening scenes when Rogers demonstrates his naivety regarding modern concepts like the internet when making friends with Sam Wilson. Rogers becomes the protagonist for all the audience precisely because he is the figure in the story who attracts most of the reader’s attention with his losses.

The story is set up to be driven by this character’s emotional deficit. Based on this, we should expect that towards the end of the film, Rogers will 'rediscover himself' - in other words, he will have that vacuum filled, at least partially. And that is what we do find.

2. The story makes good use of the inherent tension in the most universal story question: 'What happens next?'

As soon as anyone starts writing a story based on sequence - which is just about any story - the big question for any reader or audience member is what is the next occurence in a chain of occurrences? The gap or missing answer to that question draws the reader on. Where the expertise comes in is in constructing a sequence which the reader cares about. Thus, we see the our sympathies for the central character established first, as described above, in the opening scene. Then, in the action sequence set on board a ship at the beginning of the film, it is the fast-paced placing of one short scene after another which draws the viewer along: who will win the next hand-to-hand combat? How will the apparently overwhelming odds be overcome? How will Rogers defeat Batroc without his shield? and so on. It wouldn't work as well if we didn't already care about the Rogers character as the prime sympathetic figure.

This is typical of all action films or stories based on simplistic action. Though we are accustomed by certain conventions that come as part of the Epic package that the hero will beat up the bad guys, the scene’s power comes from our lack of knowledge of exactly how that will happen when the bad guys seem to have the upper hand.

3. The odds are stacked against the protagonist from early in the story.

Power comes not only from the unspoken question ‘What will happen next?’ but also from its associated question ‘How will it happen?’. Audience attention is gripped more powerfully whenever the odds are stacked against the protagonist - which occurs in almost every story, as you may have noticed in your own reading or viewing. The reason that these odds are increased is usually given as ‘it escalates the drama or tension’. What is actually happening is that having the protagonist face greater and greater barriers acts to magnify the unknown in the reader’s or viewer’s mind generated by the question ‘What will happen next?’ and this is what draws the reader or viewer on.

Fights, chases, hunts, quests: these are all typical ways of gripping the audience with unknown outcomes. These give the story momentum.

4. The story uses mystery effectively and expertly.

Dragging a reader or audience along with a series of unknowns in terms of action is often not enough. What spices things up or takes things to the next level is the next mechanism, based on the question:

'What is really going on?'

It is the additional, unexpected uncertainty of not knowing exactly what Natasha Romanoff, the Black Widow, is doing in these early scenes of the film that sets up the mystery. By hacking into the enemies’ computer and downloading data, she seems to be doing something contrary to what Rogers is doing, and of which Rogers is unaware. This is a mystery: in this case, unknown intentions in a character leading to a puzzle which sucks in our attention even more. Rogers discovers Romanoff has another agenda: to extract data from the ship's computers for Nick Fury, Rogers’ boss and the director of S.H.I.E.L.D., the agency which employs him. The resolution of the 'What happens next?’ -good guy beating bad guy in physical combat - is underpinned quickly by this unexpected mystery.

5. The story escalates the unknowns rapidly.

That underlying mystery is what carries us forward into the next scene when Rogers returns to the Triskelion, S.H.I.E.L.D.'s headquarters. He confronts Nick Fury who is not forthcoming, which prolongs and deepens the mystery. Rogers is then briefed about Project Insight: three Helicarriers, giant airborne destroyers, linked to spy satellites, designed to preemptively eliminate threats. While these are impressive visually and as a threat, they don’t remove the questions we and Rogers have, but only serve to amplify it: what are all these heli-carriers for? Their presence taps into underlying forces and deeper concerns to do with personal freedom, life and death- and so raises the stakes and the tension and drama in the story.

6. The story uses character archetypes and moral questions precisely.

It’s no accident that it’s Nick Fury who gives Rogers this briefing: Fury is after all the ‘old man with a stick’ in this story. It’s his function to outline the deeper vacuums of the tale, as described in How Stories Really Work. It’s also here that we glimpse our first real moral problem: Rogers questions whether Project Insight is the right thing to do. As an audience, our own morality is engaged and the story gains meaning.

Fury himself then develops his own attractive power, set up in his dialogue in the elevator with Rogers, suggesting a lack of trust in others from a past in which he has lost much. Note that he already has a trademark archetypal symbol, the wound or scar -his missing eye. That he then reveals that he doesn't know what is on the encrypted drive recovered by Romanoff connects him to the mystery too.

7. The story transfers its ‘protagonist power’ around.

Our attention is therefore literally glued to Fury: he has become a kind of protagonist for us as we move into the next scene. His inability to decrypt the data recovered by Romanoff magnifies the mystery even more. Fury becomes suspicious about Project Insight and asks senior S.H.I.E.L.D. official Alexander Pierce (Robert Redford) to delay the project while he tries to find out more. The film’s audience are also tracking with the desire to find out more, which is what makes the next scene so powerful. On his way to rendezvous with agent Maria Hill, Fury is ambushed by whole squad of assailants led by the mysterious assassin (another mystery) called the Winter Soldier. Our sympathies now lie with Fury in his quest to not only solve the mystery but also simply survive.

8. The story magnifies the power of the antagonist in order to escalate things even further.

One of the key formulas explored in depth in